In Switzerland, Germany, France and many other countries surrogacy is not allowed. The UK and Australia offer altruistic surrogacy only, while in Israel it’s the opposite - only a commercial surrogacy is legal, but the religion does not allow conducting a procedure for any other purposes due to the fear of incest and adultery. US in this question is separated by the states – some of them recognize surrogacy (for example, Arkansas and California), while others do not allow this (Michigan and New York).
Until the recent times treatment of infertility was quite mythical and often magical, resulting in the childlessness of the majority of infertile couples. The appearance of artificial insemination technique, which most often involves the injection of sperm into a woman's uterus, became an undeniable progress.
Intrauterine insemination is historically the first method of artificial insemination. In 30s an intrauterine insemination was done during a natural cycle by injecting into the woman's uterus the whole unprocessed semen.
Infertility treatment should begin with an assessment of the chances of getting pregnant. The probability of pregnancy is reduced for women starting from 37 years old, only 5% of all attempts at fertilization finish successfully. This can be attributed to age-related decrease of the eggs quality.
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There are 4 million children born with help of IVF and other reproduction techniques (ICSI, donor, surrogate programs). Statistics show that the incidences of congenital abnormalities happen no more than with children conceived naturally.
It is pretty common when the couple does not have its own eggs or sperm. Either a single woman, who has no eggs, wants to use a donor sperm. Surprisingly for her, in this case she will actually have to take the egg from a donor female. In all these cases the donor embryos are used (embryos from donor eggs fertilized by donated sperm).
It is known that in order to be a surrogate mother you need to have a good, stable health, be in age from 18 to 35 years, and also have one or more children. All candidates must undergo a compulsory medical examination to provide truthful information about the history of pregnancy and childbirth, illness, etc.
After the surrogate mother voluntarily and consciously decided to carry and give birth to a child for potential parents, she must clearly understand the measure of responsibility for all her actions and commitments.
And this responsibility is not limited to items that are under the supervision of lawyers were agreed and described in the signed contract between the surrogate mother and the potential parents.
Prospective parents are usually required to pay compensation for the surrogate mother's pregnancy and birth of a healthy child, preparation of all necessary documents for the registration of the child and registration themselves as legal biological parents, as well as additional compensation for the restoration of health after pregnancy and childbirth.
It should be noted that it is not always that in vitro fertilization procedure succeeds. Thus, in average pregnancy occurs in 30 cases out of 100, while the delivery of a baby at the end of pregnancy only in 24 out of 100 cases. In world practice, IVF birth rate is always lower than the pregnancy rate. That is an average index that 6% of pregnancies end with premature interruption.
After numerous medical and legal consultations the participants of surrogacy program do not particularly focus on its psychological components.
Some initially did not even consider that surrogacy brings them into a difficult psychological situation that requires professional assistance of psychologist. However, without an adequate psychological preparation none of the participants can survive in such a program. Each of the participants will experience a "psychological drama" and should prepare him/herself for future challenges in advance.