What is preimplantation genetic diagnosis? This is a special test of chromosomes (genetic material) of the embryo cells before it is transferred into the uterus.
Congenital chromosome changes are a major cause of genetically based human diseases. Damages of the chromosome can be inherited from a parent or arise again as a result of changes in the genes of germ cells or in the early stages of embryo development. According to the studies, inborn damages of chromosomes are present in 20-50% of all conceptions and are responsible for 50-60% of spontaneous miscarriages in the first trimester of pregnancy.
With the rapid development of knowledge in the field of genetics and molecular biology the study of chromosomes is an essential component of modern medicine. The more reproduction clinics now use the collection and subsequent genetic testing of embryo cells that are on their 5-6 days stage.
One of the new techniques in the field of preimplantation diagnosis is the use of comparative genomic hybridization (also called array CGH). The principle of this method is to compare the DNA of the two sets of chromosomes - a set of tested patients and sets of chromosomes without deviation. This technique has revolutionized the possibility of identifying some of the causes of genetic diseases. Thanks to DNA chips, we are able to establish in the course of the study some changes in the entire set of chromosomes, and to identify the anomalies that were difficult to find.
"Prior to the method of array CGH we conducted an extensive testing in collaboration with the Institute of Molecular Genetics and the Division of Medical Genetics at the Hospital of Brno University" - says Vit Gubinka, Head of the Laboratory Clinic of Reproductive Medicine and Gynecology REPROFIT International - "Comparative genomic hybridization gives infertile couples hope and helps in their treatment. "